A programming language needs to have strictly defined rules for it to work seamlessly across multiple environments.
This spec is maintained by Ecma International. You can check out the standard, proposals, and meeting notes here.
As mentioned above, it’s the only language that works perfectly with HTML/CSS and is natively supported by all the major browsers in the world.
This code is parsed, compiled and then executed.
The best way to learn any programming language is to dive in head first, play around and make stuff.
Here are some good books to use as reference:
- You Don’t Know JS by Kyle Simpson
These should be enough to get you started on the right path. Happy coding!